Differences between adjustable and fixed rate loans
A fixed-rate loan features a fixed payment amount for the entire duration of your mortgage. The property tax and homeowners insurance which are almost always part of the payment will go up over time, but in general, payment amounts on fixed rate loans don't increase much.
At the beginning of a a fixed-rate mortgage loan, most of your payment is applied to interest. As you pay on the loan, more of your payment is applied to principal.
Borrowers might choose a fixed-rate loan to lock in a low rate. Borrowers choose fixed-rate loans because interest rates are low and they want to lock in this lower rate. For homeowners who have an ARM now, refinancing into a fixed-rate loan can offer greater monthly payment stability. If you have an Adjustable Rate Mortgage (ARM) now, we can assist you in locking a fixed-rate at the best rate currently available. Call Commonwealth Mortgage & Investments, Inc. at 804-768-9519 to learn more.
There are many kinds of Adjustable Rate Mortgages. Generally, the interest for ARMs are based on a federal index. A few of these are: the 6-month Certificate of Deposit (CD) rate, the 1 year Treasury Security rate, the Federal Home Loan Bank's 11th District Cost of Funds Index (COFI), or others.
Most programs have a cap that protects you from sudden increases in monthly payments. Some ARMs can't adjust more than 2% per year, regardless of the underlying interest rate. Your loan may feature a "payment cap" that instead of capping the interest directly, caps the amount that the payment can go up in one period. The majority of ARMs also cap your interest rate over the life of the loan.
ARMs usually start out at a very low rate that usually increases over time. You may hear people talking about "3/1 ARMs" or "5/1 ARMs". In these loans, the initial rate is set for three or five years. After this period it adjusts every year. These types of loans are fixed for 3 or 5 years, then they adjust. Loans like this are often best for people who anticipate moving within three or five years. These types of ARMs benefit people who will move before the initial lock expires.
Most people who choose ARMs choose them when they want to take advantage of lower introductory rates and don't plan to remain in the home longer than this introductory low-rate period. ARMs can be risky in a down market because homeowners could be stuck with rates that go up when they can't sell their home or refinance at the lower property value.